As the second-oldest field in professional engineering after military engineering, Civil Engineering deals with the physical and scientific applications of principles in the design, structure, and maintenance of natural or man-made environment like bridges, roads, dams, canals, buildings, water supply system, sewerage treatment, etc. Civil engineering is applied in the private sector (from homeowners to international companies) or in the public sector (from municipals to national governments). Its history is associated with knowledge of geography, geology, materials science, hydrology, structures, mechanics, soils, environment, and other fields. Civil engineering is a wide-ranging profession and it includes several specialized and distinct sub-disciplines such as:
Municipal or urban engineering
Water resources engineering
Civil engineers generally follow a specific specialty as enumerated above, while those working for government agencies apply various specializations especially in projects concerning development or maintenance of key infrastructures. In certain instances, a civil engineer may also perform land surveying services.
A civil engineer is a graduate of bachelor’s degree in Civil Engineering, majoring in physical sciences and mathematics, as well as knowledge in mechanical and structural engineering. A number of them pursue further trainings and studies by obtaining a masteral, doctoral, and post-doctoral degrees. In most countries, a licensure is required to be a certified civil engineer.
Civil engineers are responsible for designing, supervising, operating, constructing, and maintaining construction projects and systems while at the same time protecting the environmental and public health. They can also handle the improvement of abandoned structures, site preparation for construction projects (excavation or earth grading), review bids from subcontractors, ensure compliance with building codes, and writing specifications of materials and structures to test their dependability, efficiency, and durabilty.
Civil engineering design services include:
Education and healthcare facilities
Other aspects of land development
Civil engineers focus on project design specifically with the technical aspects as well as with the existing and natural built environment, considering the social and economic factors, as well as the expected life span of the project. They combine several in-house services like surveying and construction inspection to guarantee that the project meets the client’s expectations from start to finish.